Check Raid Status Windows

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This is a quick post to show how you can monitor Windows RAID and physical disks using PowerShell. To check the status of Windows RAID run the following. Go to the Support page of the hard drive on the manufacturer’s site and look for the hard drive tool. Initialize the diagnostic features of the hard drive to test the health status of Disk according to the Self-monitoring, analysis, and reporting technology or S.M.A.R.T. 2.Using the Windows CHKDSK Tool.

Applies to: Windows Server 2019, Windows Server 2016

Use the following information to troubleshoot your Storage Spaces Direct deployment.

How can I use Window PowerShell in Windows 10 to check the status information (such as the health status, operational status, and if the disks are offline or read-only) on multiple disks? Use the Get-DiskStorageNodeView cmdlet: Get-DiskSNV. Note Get-DiskSNV is an alias for Get-DiskStorageNodeView. The possibilities are disks are in a hardware RAID or not. Rick click on the 'computer' icon on the desktop or the computer item in the Start Menu. Click on Disk Management. In the bottom center pane you'll see Disk 0, Disk 1, etc. On the left column under the Disk number you'll see the word Basic or Dynamic. Sign in to vote. +1, To add - on windows server you can run. Diskpart list volume. Which should display your Volumes with the Type RAID. Proposed as answer by Santosh Bhandarkar Friday, October 11, 2013 3:00 AM. Marked as answer by Justin Gu Monday, October 28, 2013 5:01 AM. Thursday, October 10, 2013 4:00 AM.

In general, start with the following steps:

  1. Confirm the make/model of SSD is certified for Windows Server 2016 and Windows Server 2019 using the Windows Server Catalog. Confirm with vendor that the drives are supported for Storage Spaces Direct.
  2. Inspect the storage for any faulty drives. Use storage management software to check the status of the drives. If any of the drives are faulty, work with your vendor.
  3. Update storage and drive firmware if necessary.Ensure the latest Windows Updates are installed on all nodes. You can get the latest updates for Windows Server 2016 from Windows 10 and Windows Server 2016 update history and for Windows Server 2019 from Windows 10 and Windows Server 2019 update history.
  4. Update network adapter drivers and firmware.
  5. Run cluster validation and review the Storage Space Direct section, ensure the drives that will used for the cache are reported correctly and no errors.

If you're still having issues, review the scenarios below.

Virtual disk resources are in No Redundancy state

The nodes of a Storage Spaces Direct system restart unexpectedly because of a crash or power failure. Then, one or more of the virtual disks may not come online, and you see the description 'Not enough redundancy information.'

FriendlyNameResiliencySettingNameOperationalStatusHealthStatusIsManualAttachSizePSComputerName
Disk4MirrorOKHealthyTrue10 TBNode-01.conto...
Disk3MirrorOKHealthyTrue10 TBNode-01.conto...
Disk2MirrorNo RedundancyUnhealthyTrue10 TBNode-01.conto...
Disk1Mirror{No Redundancy, InService}UnhealthyTrue10 TBNode-01.conto...

Additionally, after an attempt to bring the virtual disk online, the following information is logged in the Cluster log (DiskRecoveryAction).

The No Redundancy Operational Status can occur if a disk failed or if the system is unable to access data on the virtual disk. This issue can occur if a reboot occurs on a node during maintenance on the nodes.

To fix this issue, follow these steps:

  1. Remove the affected Virtual Disks from CSV. This will put them in the 'Available storage' group in the cluster and start showing as a ResourceType of 'Physical Disk.'

  2. On the node that owns the Available Storage group, run the following command on every disk that's in a No Redundancy state. To identify which node the 'Available Storage' group is on you can run the following command.

  3. Set the disk recovery action and then start the disk(s).

  4. A repair should automatically start. Wait for the repair to finish. It may go into a suspended state and start again. To monitor the progress:

    • Run Get-StorageJob to monitor the status of the repair and to see when it is completed.
    • Run Get-VirtualDisk and verify that the Space returns a HealthStatus of Healthy.
  5. After the repair finishes and the Virtual Disks are Healthy, change the Virtual Disk parameters back.

  6. Take the disk(s) offline and then online again to have the DiskRecoveryAction take effect:

  7. Add the affected Virtual Disks back to CSV.

DiskRecoveryAction is an override switch that enables attaching the Space volume in read-write mode without any checks. The property enables you to do diagnostics into why a volume won't come online. It's very similar to Maintenance Mode but you can invoke it on a resource in a Failed state. It also lets you access the data, which can be helpful in situations such as 'No Redundancy,' where you can get access to whatever data you can and copy it. The DiskRecoveryAction property was added in the February 22, 2018, update, KB 4077525.

Detached status in a cluster

When you run the Get-VirtualDisk cmdlet, the OperationalStatus for one or more Storage Spaces Direct virtual disks is Detached. However, the HealthStatus reported by the Get-PhysicalDisk cmdlet indicates that all the physical disks are in a Healthy state.

The following is an example of the output from the Get-VirtualDisk cmdlet.

FriendlyNameResiliencySettingNameOperationalStatusHealthStatusIsManualAttachSizePSComputerName
Disk4MirrorOKHealthyTrue10 TBNode-01.conto...
Disk3MirrorOKHealthyTrue10 TBNode-01.conto...
Disk2MirrorDetachedUnknownTrue10 TBNode-01.conto...
Disk1MirrorDetachedUnknownTrue10 TBNode-01.conto...

Additionally, the following events may be logged on the nodes:

The Detached Operational Status can occur if the dirty region tracking (DRT) log is full. Storage Spaces uses dirty region tracking (DRT) for mirrored spaces to make sure that when a power failure occurs, any in-flight updates to metadata are logged to make sure that the storage space can redo or undo operations to bring the storage space back into a flexible and consistent state when power is restored and the system comes back up. If the DRT log is full, the virtual disk can't be brought online until the DRT metadata is synchronized and flushed. This process requires running a full scan, which can take several hours to finish.

To fix this issue, follow these steps:

  1. Remove the affected Virtual Disks from CSV.

  2. Run the following commands on every disk that's not coming online.

  3. Run the following command on every node in which the detached volume is online.

    This task should be initiated on all nodes on which the detached volume is online. A repair should automatically start. Wait for the repair to finish. It may go into a suspended state and start again. To monitor the progress:

    • Run Get-StorageJob to monitor the status of the repair and to see when it is completed.
    • Run Get-VirtualDisk and verify the Space returns a HealthStatus of Healthy.
      • The 'Data Integrity Scan for Crash Recovery' is a task that doesn't show as a storage job, and there is no progress indicator. If the task is showing as running, it is running. When it completes, it will show completed.

        Additionally, you can view the status of a running schedule task by using the following cmdlet:

  4. As soon as the 'Data Integrity Scan for Crash Recovery' is finished, the repair finishes and the Virtual Disks are Healthy, change the Virtual Disk parameters back.

  5. Take the disk(s) offline and then online again to have the DiskRecoveryAction take effect:

  6. Add the affected Virtual Disks back to CSV.

    DiskRunChkdsk value 7 is used to attach the Space volume and have the partition in read-only mode. This enables Spaces to self-discover and self-heal by triggering a repair. Repair will run automatically once mounted. It also allows you to access the data, which can be helpful to get access to whatever data you can to copy. For some fault conditions, such as a full DRT log, you need to run the Data Integrity Scan for Crash Recovery scheduled task.

Data Integrity Scan for Crash Recovery task is used to synchronize and clear a full dirty region tracking (DRT) log. This task can take several hours to complete. The 'Data Integrity Scan for Crash Recovery' is a task that doesn't show as a storage job, and there is no progress indicator. If the task is showing as running, it is running. When it completes, it will show as completed. If you cancel the task or restart a node while this task is running, the task will need to start over from the beginning.

For more information, see Troubleshooting Storage Spaces Direct health and operational states.

Event 5120 with STATUS_IO_TIMEOUT c00000b5

Important

For Windows Server 2016: To reduce the chance of experiencing these symptoms while applying the update with the fix, it is recommended to use the Storage Maintenance Mode procedure below to install the October 18, 2018, cumulative update for Windows Server 2016 or a later version when the nodes currently have installed a Windows Server 2016 cumulative update that was released from May 8, 2018 to October 9, 2018.

You might get event 5120 with STATUS_IO_TIMEOUT c00000b5 after you restart a node on Windows Server 2016 with cumulative update that were released from May 8, 2018 KB 4103723 to October 9, 2018 KB 4462917 installed.

When you restart the node, Event 5120 is logged in the System event log and includes one of the following error codes:

When an Event 5120 is logged, a live dump is generated to collect debugging information that may cause additional symptoms or have a performance effect. Generating the live dump creates a brief pause to enable taking a snapshot of memory to write the dump file. Systems that have lots of memory and are under stress may cause nodes to drop out of cluster membership and also cause the following Event 1135 to be logged.

A change introduced in May 8, 2018 to Windows Server 2016, which was a cumulative update to add SMB Resilient Handles for the Storage Spaces Direct intra-cluster SMB network sessions. This was done to improve resiliency to transient network failures and improve how RoCE handles network congestion. These improvements also inadvertently increased time-outs when SMB connections try to reconnect and waits to time-out when a node is restarted. These issues can affect a system that is under stress. During unplanned downtime, IO pauses of up to 60 seconds have also been observed while the system waits for connections to time-out. To fix this issue, install the October 18, 2018, cumulative update for Windows Server 2016 or a later version.

Note This update aligns the CSV time-outs with SMB connection time-outs to fix this issue. It does not implement the changes to disable live dump generation mentioned in the Workaround section.

Shutdown process flow:

  1. Run the Get-VirtualDisk cmdlet, and make sure that the HealthStatus value is Healthy.

  2. Drain the node by running the following cmdlet:

  3. Put the disks on that node in Storage Maintenance Mode by running the following cmdlet:

  4. Run the Get-PhysicalDisk cmdlet, and make sure that the OperationalStatus value is In Maintenance Mode.

  5. Run the Restart-Computer cmdlet to restart the node.

  6. After node restarts, remove the disks on that node from Storage Maintenance Mode by running the following cmdlet:

  7. Resume the node by running the following cmdlet:

  8. Check the status of the resync jobs by running the following cmdlet:

Disabling live dumps

To mitigate the effect of live dump generation on systems that have lots of memory and are under stress, you may additionally want to disable live dump generation. Three options are provided below.

Caution

This procedure can prevent the collection of diagnostic information that Microsoft Support may need to investigate this problem. A Support agent may have to ask you to re-enable live dump generation based on specific troubleshooting scenarios.

There are two methods to disable live dumps, as described below.

Method 1 (recommended in this scenario)

To completely disable all dumps, including live dumps system-wide, follow these steps:

  1. Create the following registry key: HKLMSystemCurrentControlSetControlCrashControlForceDumpsDisabled
  2. Under the new ForceDumpsDisabled key, create a REG_DWORD property as GuardedHost, and then set its value to 0x10000000.
  3. Apply the new registry key to each cluster node.

Note

You have to restart the computer for the nregistry change to take effect.

After this registry key is set, live dump creation will fail and generate a 'STATUS_NOT_SUPPORTED' error.

Method 2

By default, Windows Error Reporting will allow only one LiveDump per report type per 7 days and only 1 LiveDump per machine per 5 days. You can change that by setting the following registry keys to only allow one LiveDump on the machine forever.

Note You have to restart the computer for the change to take effect.

Method 3

To disable cluster generation of live dumps (such as when an Event 5120 is logged), run the following cmdlet:

This cmdlet has an immediate effect on all cluster nodes without a computer restart.

Slow IO performance

If you are seeing slow IO performance, check if cache is enabled in your Storage Spaces Direct configuration.

There are two ways to check:

  1. Using the cluster log. Open the cluster log in text editor of choice and search for '[ SBL Disks ].' This will be a list of the disk on the node the log was generated on.

    Cache Enabled Disks Example: Note here that the state is CacheDiskStateInitializedAndBound and there is a GUID present here.

    Cache Not Enabled: Here we can see there is no GUID present and the state is CacheDiskStateNonHybrid.

    Cache Not Enabled: When all disks are of the same type case is not enabled by default. Here we can see there is no GUID present and the state is CacheDiskStateIneligibleDataPartition.

  2. Using Get-PhysicalDisk.xml from the SDDCDiagnosticInfo

    1. Open the XML file using '$d = Import-Clixml GetPhysicalDisk.XML'
    2. Run 'ipmo storage'
    3. run '$d'. Note that Usage is Auto-Select, not JournalYou'll see output like this:
    FriendlyNameSerialNumberMediaTypeCanPoolOperationalStatusHealthStatusUsageSize
    NVMe INTEL SSDPE7KX02PHLF733000372P0LGNSSDFalseOKHealthyAuto-Select 1.82 TB
    NVMe INTEL SSDPE7KX02PHLF7504008J2P0LGNSSDFalseOKHealthyAuto-Select1.82 TB
    NVMe INTEL SSDPE7KX02PHLF7504005F2P0LGNSSDFalseOKHealthyAuto-Select1.82 TB
    NVMe INTEL SSDPE7KX02PHLF7504002A2P0LGNSSDFalseOKHealthyAuto-Select1.82 TB
    NVMe INTEL SSDPE7KX02PHLF7504004T2P0LGNSSDFalseOKHealthyAuto-Select1.82 TB
    NVMe INTEL SSDPE7KX02PHLF7504002E2P0LGNSSDFalseOKHealthyAuto-Select1.82 TB
    NVMe INTEL SSDPE7KX02PHLF7330002Z2P0LGNSSDFalseOKHealthyAuto-Select1.82 TB
    NVMe INTEL SSDPE7KX02PHLF733000272P0LGNSSDFalseOKHealthyAuto-Select1.82 TB
    NVMe INTEL SSDPE7KX02PHLF7330001J2P0LGNSSDFalseOKHealthyAuto-Select1.82 TB
    NVMe INTEL SSDPE7KX02PHLF733000302P0LGNSSDFalseOKHealthyAuto-Select1.82 TB
    NVMe INTEL SSDPE7KX02PHLF7330004D2P0LGNSSDFalseOKHealthyAuto-Select1.82 TB

How to destroy an existing cluster so you can use the same disks again

In a Storage Spaces Direct cluster, once you disable Storage Spaces Direct and use the clean-up process described in Clean drives, the clustered storage pool still remains in an Offline state, and the Health Service is removed from cluster.

The next step is to remove the phantom storage pool:

Now, if you run Get-PhysicalDisk on any of the nodes, you'll see all the disks that were in the pool. For example, in a lab with a 4-Node cluster with 4 SAS disks, 100GB each presented to each node. In that case, after Storage Space Direct is disabled, which removes the SBL (Storage Bus Layer) but leaves the filter, if you run Get-PhysicalDisk, it should report 4 disks excluding the local OS disk. Instead it reported 16 instead. This is the same for all nodes in the cluster. When you run a Get-Disk command, you'll see the locally attached disks numbered as 0, 1, 2 and so on, as seen in this sample output:

NumberFriendly NameSerial NumberHealthStatusOperationalStatusTotal SizePartition Style
0Msft Virtu...HealthyOnline127 GBGPT
Msft Virtu...HealthyOffline100 GBRAW
Msft Virtu...HealthyOffline100 GBRAW
Msft Virtu...HealthyOffline100 GBRAW
Msft Virtu...HealthyOffline100 GBRAW
1Msft Virtu...HealthyOffline100 GBRAW
Msft Virtu...HealthyOffline100 GBRAW
2Msft Virtu...HealthyOffline100 GBRAW
Msft Virtu...HealthyOffline100 GBRAW
Msft Virtu...HealthyOffline100 GBRAW
Msft Virtu...HealthyOffline100 GBRAW
Msft Virtu...HealthyOffline100 GBRAW
4Msft Virtu...HealthyOffline100 GBRAW
3Msft Virtu...HealthyOffline100 GBRAW
Msft Virtu...HealthyOffline100 GBRAW
Msft Virtu...HealthyOffline100 GBRAW
Msft Virtu...HealthyOffline100 GBRAW

Error message about 'unsupported media type' when you create an Storage Spaces Direct cluster using Enable-ClusterS2D

You might see errors similar to this when you run the Enable-ClusterS2D cmdlet:

To fix this issue, ensure the HBA adapter is configured in HBA mode. No HBA should be configured in RAID mode.

Enable-ClusterStorageSpacesDirect hangs at 'Waiting until SBL disks are surfaced' or at 27%

You will see the following information in the validation report:

Disk <identifier> connected to node <nodename> returned a SCSI Port Association and the corresponding enclosure device could not be found. The hardware is not compatible with Storage Spaces Direct (S2D), contact the hardware vendor to verify support for SCSI Enclosure Services (SES).

The issue is with the HPE SAS expander card that lies between the disks and the HBA card. The SAS expander creates a duplicate ID between the first drive connected to the expander and the expander itself. This has been resolved in HPE Smart Array Controllers SAS Expander Firmware: 4.02.

Intel SSD DC P4600 series has a non-unique NGUID

You might see an issue where an Intel SSD DC P4600 series device seems to be reporting similar 16 byte NGUID for multiple namespaces such as 0100000001000000E4D25C000014E214 or 0100000001000000E4D25C0000EEE214 in the example below.

uniqueiddeviceidMediaTypeBusTypeserialnumbersizecanpoolfriendlynameOperationalStatus
5000CCA251D12E300HDDSAS7PKR197G10000831348736FalseHGSTHUH721010AL4200
eui.0100000001000000E4D25C000014E2144SSDNVMe0100_0000_0100_0000_E4D2_5C00_0014_E214.1600321314816TrueINTELSSDPE2KE016T7
eui.0100000001000000E4D25C000014E2145SSDNVMe0100_0000_0100_0000_E4D2_5C00_0014_E214.1600321314816TrueINTELSSDPE2KE016T7
eui.0100000001000000E4D25C0000EEE2146SSDNVMe0100_0000_0100_0000_E4D2_5C00_00EE_E214.1600321314816TrueINTELSSDPE2KE016T7
eui.0100000001000000E4D25C0000EEE2147SSDNVMe0100_0000_0100_0000_E4D2_5C00_00EE_E214.1600321314816TrueINTELSSDPE2KE016T7

To fix this issue, update the firmware on the Intel drives to the latest version. Firmware version QDV101B1 from May 2018 is known to resolve this issue.

The May 2018 release of the Intel SSD Data Center Tool includes a firmware update, QDV101B1, for the Intel SSD DC P4600 series.

Physical Disk 'Healthy,' and Operational Status is 'Removing from Pool'

In a Windows Server 2016 Storage Spaces Direct cluster, you might see the HealthStatus for one ore more physical disks as 'Healthy,' while the OperationalStatus is '(Removing from Pool, OK).'

'Removing from Pool' is an intent set when Remove-PhysicalDisk is called but stored in Health to maintain state and allow recovery if the remove operation fails. You can manually change the OperationalStatus to Healthy with one of the following methods:

  • Remove the physical disk from the pool, and then add it back.
  • Import-Module Clear-PhysicalDiskHealthData.ps1
  • Run the Clear-PhysicalDiskHealthData.ps1 script to clear the intent. (Available for download as a .TXT file. You'll need to save it as a .PS1 file before you can run it.)

Here are some examples showing how to run the script:

  • Use the SerialNumber parameter to specify the disk you need to set to Healthy. You can get the serial number from WMI MSFT_PhysicalDisk or Get-PhysicalDIsk. (We're just using 0s for the serial number below.)

  • Use the UniqueId parameter to specify the disk (again from WMI MSFT_PhysicalDisk or Get-PhysicalDIsk).

File copy is slow

You might seen an issue using File Explorer to copy a large VHD to the virtual disk - the file copy is taking longer than expected.

Using File Explorer, Robocopy or Xcopy to copy a large VHD to the virtual disk is not a recommended method to as this will result in slower than expected performance. The copy process does not go through the Storage Spaces Direct stack, which sits lower on the storage stack, and instead acts like a local copy process.

If you want to test Storage Spaces Direct performance, we recommend using VMFleet and Diskspd to load and stress test the servers to get a base line and set expectations of the Storage Spaces Direct performance.

Expected events that you would see on rest of the nodes during the reboot of a node.

It is safe to ignore these events:

If you're running Azure VMs, you can ignore this event: Event ID 32: The driver detected that the device DeviceHarddisk5DR5 has its write cache enabled. Data corruption may occur.

Slow performance or 'Lost Communication,' 'IO Error,' 'Detached,' or 'No Redundancy' errors for deployments that use Intel P3x00 NVMe devices

We've identified a critical issue that affects some Storage Spaces Direct users who are using hardware based on the Intel P3x00 family of NVM Express (NVMe) devices with firmware versions before 'Maintenance Release 8.'

Note

Individual OEMs may have devices that are based on the Intel P3x00 family of NVMe devices with unique firmware version strings. Contact your OEM for more information of the latest firmware version.

If you are using hardware in your deployment based on the Intel P3x00 family of NVMe devices, we recommend that you immediately apply the latest available firmware (at least Maintenance Release 8). This Microsoft Support article provides additional information about this issue.

Here you will find out:

  • how to check what RAID you use
  • how to check RAID array status
  • when DiskInternals can help you

Are you ready? Let's read!

How to check what RAID you use

To find out which RAID you are using, just type one command to the command line:

lspci grep RAID

There may be several responses to this request:

  • Hewlett-Packard is your HP RAID array
  • 3ware is your 3ware RAID array
  • megaRAID is your MegaRAID array

If you do not receive a response or some other answer, then most likely you have software RAID.

RAIDs and their status

  1. 1. Check the Status of 3ware RAID

To do this, enter “tw_cli”. On different systems, this may be tw_cli.amd64 or tw_cli.i386.

After that, you need to find the number of your controller and check its status.

Check hp raid status windows

Example:

Where c1 is the controller.

Then look at the Status column; it shows the state of the array.

Check Raid Status Windows Server 2016

  1. 2. Check the Status of HP RAID

Here you need to enter the following command:

As a result, you will see whether the RAID is working or not.

If it works well, you will see OK on the screen.

  1. 3. Check the Status of MegaRAID

In this case, enter:

In the Hlth column, the status should be Opt.

If not, it means there are problems with the array.

  1. 4. Check Software RAID Status

This RAID is in the range in the previous value fields and in FSx.

The following command is used here:

cat /proc/mdstat

The output will be:

blocks [2/1] [_U]

blocks [2/2] [UU]

[UU] or U = healthy, full-featured RAID partition.

[_U] or [U_] = failed disk.

RAID statuses could be different in utilities

If you use a special utility, for example Adaptec Storage Manager, there can be other statuses:

  • Optimal: works at the highest level
  • Degraded: works at the average level
  • Failed: does not work at all; a specific error should also be highlighted here, and which disk it refers to.
  • Recovery: returned to optimal condition. This condition is intermediate, so the RAID is in not very good shape.

RAID Recovery: a key to RAID data safety

The best option for recovering an array is DiskInternals RAID Recovery.

After downloading and installing the application to your computer, you just need to open it and click the 'RAID Recovery' button, then select the reading mode. Re-save the recovered data to an external data store.

You can also use Uneraser recovery mode if some or all of the data has been deleted from any RAID.

RAID Recovery is the most advanced tool on the market that automatically detects the type of RAID array, file system, the number and order of disks, and the controller, while at the same time providing for completely manual operation. The utility is compatible with Dell, Adaptec, HP, MegaRaid, and DDF-compatible devices, as well as silicone RAID controllers. This software is suitable for all types of arrays: RAID 0, 1, 0 + 1, 1 + 0, RAID 4, RAID 5, 10, 50, 5EE, 5R, RAID 6, 60 and JBOD, which are connected to a dedicated controller RAID motherboard with RAID support from VIA, NVidia, or Intel.

Using this application, you are guaranteed to recover more than 90% of the data from the damaged array.

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